For information on how the GTCI scoring is calculated, the data sources and for the full methodology please view here.
Number = GTCI Ranking Score | Key:
Both North American economies—the United States (3rd) and Canada (15th)—feature in the top 15 high performers of this year’s GTCI. The countries are fairly evenly matched in the Enable pillar, with good Regulatory and Market Landscapes.
Although Canada is slightly better at attracting talent, particularly given its high tolerance of immigrants and minorities, the United States ranks slightly higher in the Retain pillar. Given the leading position of the United States in the Grow pillar, it has been able to create a stronger pool of Global Knowledge Skills.
Eight European countries are within the top 10 high performers group in this year’s GTCI. Ireland and Iceland join in the top 15 this year. Yet performance in this region is largely heterogeneous. In general, smaller European countries tend to perform better than larger ones: for example, the Benelux countries all rank higher than larger European economies such as Germany and France.
France (21st) exhibits a solid Grow pillar, given the quality of its higher education institutions. The country lags behind particularly in the Enable pillar—its Business and Labour Landscape has room for improvement, especially in terms of labour market flexibility.
Among other big economies, Italy (36th) has the lowest overall performance, ranking lower than several Eastern European countries. Although the country has excellent clusters, Italy’s showing is affected by the Regulatory Landscape and, above all, the Business and Labour Landscape. Italy has ample room for improvement in its External Openness, especially in attracting talent from abroad.
Four upper-middle- income countries of this group dominate the five top places of the region: Mauritius (46th), Botswana (62nd), South Africa (63rd), and Namibia (80th). The other country in the top five of the region is Rwanda (76th).
Only Mauritius is above the median GTCI score, supported by a solid Enable pillar; the Regulatory Landscape of the country is particularly good. This edition of the GTCI has improved country coverage in this region, which often shows data limitations: big economies such as Nigeria are still not covered.
Chile (33rd) is the top performer of the region, although its stock of migrant population is still rather low, it is increasingly considered a country that is attractive to foreign talent. This is especially the case given recent policies intended to attract foreign entrepreneurs.
Costa Rica (35th) and Panama (45th) stand out for their strong Attract pillars and have become hubs in Central America.
Uruguay (44th), as the other large high-income country in the region after Chile, is another country with a strong Attract pillar (28th), in addition to its relatively good Grow pillar (39th).
None of the other countries in the region exhibit an impressive performance or even a performance corresponding to their level of development.
Brazil (73rd) and Mexico (71st), the two largest economies of the region, are below the median in terms of GTCI score.
This has the largest potential pool of human capital of all the regions: more than 1.7 billion people live in Central and Southern Asia, with India leading the way with a population of over 1.25 billion. Unfortunately, the region’s talent performance is not good.
Kazakhstan (51st) is one of two upper-middle- income countries and ranks above the median of performance in the GTCI sample. 2nd place is taken by India (81st) and 3rd by Sri Lanka (82nd), which are well below the regional median in terms of ranking. Kazakhstan is able to attract foreign businesses and some talent, fuelled by its oil industry and an eagerness to diversify its economy.
Without doubt, an improvement in India would have the greatest impact in terms of the pool of talent not only in this region but also globally. India has been able to create a stable pool of Global Knowledge Skills but it has suffered in the Retain pillar. A great deal of talent continues to leave the country, and thus India still experiences a brain drain.
Singapore (2nd) is the flag bearer of performance in the region. Next comes Australia (11th) and New Zealand (12th).
Japan (20th) has a solid overall performance, although its talent competitiveness is held back by a low performance in the Attract pillar where even middle-income countries such as Malaysia attract more foreign talent.
Indonesia (77th) has a long way to go to catch up on all the pillars, yet the country has strong Employability of its domestic population—and it is increasingly perceived by business leaders as being attractive to high-skilled people.
Thailand (70th) also needs to catch up across the different pillars, but it does boast a relatively better performance in the Enable pillar—particularly driven by the Market Landscape and the Business and Labour Landscape.
Although South Korea (30th) makes it into the top quartile of this year’s rankings, it is the lowest- ranking high-income country in the region. Despite being a top country in dimensions such as Tertiary enrolment and ICT Infrastructure, the country has major room for improvement in the Attract pillar.
The United Arab Emirates (17th), Qatar (23rd), and Israel (24th) are all part of the high-performing 25th percentile of countries. They are good at attracting foreign workers and at creating the proper context for the operation of businesses by having a solid Enable pillar.
Aside from Yemen, the Northern African countries of the GTCI sample have the lowest overall GTCI score in the region (Tunisia is 83rd; Morocco, 98th; Algeria, 101st; Egypt, 104th).
Turkey (68th) is relatively solid in terms of Global Knowledge Skills and also has a relatively strong Enable pillar. Its main weakness is that it does not attract foreign talent. Jordan (50th) can be highlighted as a place to which corporations may gravitate, with a relatively high score for Global Knowledge Skills.
Saudi Arabia (41st) performs even better than some European countries but it still lags behind the regional leaders.